Oito homens detêm a mesma riqueza que a metade mais pobre do mundo, diz relatório

De acordo com dados do relatório Uma economia para os 99% elaborado pela Oxfam, atualmente, o patrimônio de apenas oito homens é igual ao da metade mais pobre do mundo. Baseado em informações do “Credit Suisse Wealth Report 2016” e na lista de super-ricos da revista Forbes, o documento analisa como grandes empresas e pessoas super-ricas estão acirrando a crise da desigualdade e quais caminhos podem ser trilhados para mudar essa situação.

Os dados demonstram como o crescimento econômico tem ocorrido no sentido de beneficiar os mais ricos e perpetuar a situação de marginalização dos mais afetados pela pobreza. Entre 1988 e 2011, enquanto a renda dos 10% mais pobres aumentou cerca de US$ 65, a dos 1% mais ricos aumentou cerca de US$ 11.800, ou seja, 182 vezes mais. Além disso, dos 1.810 bilionários existentes no mundo, 89% são homens — revelando uma interseccionalidade entre a desigualdade de renda e a de gênero.

Projeta-se que, ao longo dos próximos 20 anos, 500 pessoas passarão mais de US$ 2,1 trilhões para seus herdeiros — uma soma mais alta que o PIB da Índia, país com 1,2 bilhão de habitantes. Nos Estados Unidos, uma pesquisa recente realizada pelo economista Thomas Pickety revela que, nos últimos 30 anos, a renda dos 50% mais pobres permaneceu inalterada, enquanto a do 1% mais rico aumentou 300%.

O relatório também elenca as causas da desigualdade acirrada constantemente. Entre elas está, por exemplo, o fato de as empresas trabalharem para os que estão no topo da hierarquia de riqueza. Segundo a análise, as empresas constituem força vital para a economia de mercado e, quando trabalham em benefício de todos, desempenham relevante papel na construção de sociedades justas e prósperas. No entanto, elas estão cada vez mais trabalhando para os ricos, negando, assim, os benefícios do crescimento econômico aos que mais precisam deles.

Outras causas apontadas também são o arrocho do salário de trabalhadoras e trabalhadores e da receita de fornecedores, ao passo em que a renda de altos executivos tem aumentado vertiginosamente; a sonegação de impostos e o capitalismo de camaradagem — quando as grandes empresas usam seu poder e influência para garantir que regulações e políticas sejam formuladas de maneira que possibilite a continuidade de seus lucros.

O texto argumenta que muitas políticas e investimentos são fundamentadas em uma série de falsas premissas, e que elas também perpetuam a desigualdade econômica. Entre elas está a ideia de que o mercado está sempre certo e que o papel dos governos deve ser minimizado; de que o nosso modelo econômico é neutro em relação a gênero; de que a riqueza individual extrema é um sinal de sucesso e de que o crescimento do PIB deve ser o principal objetivo da formulação de políticas.

Ainda na análise do relatório, não é possível dissociar a realidade da conjuntura política mundial, do aprofundamento da desigualdade. “O resultado do plebiscito Brexit, a vitória de Donald Trump na eleição presidencial nos Estados Unidos, o aumento preocupante do racismo e a desilusão generalizada com a política tradicional indicam cada vez mais que, um número crescente de pessoas nos países ricos, não está mais disposto a tolerar o status quo“, diz um trecho do documento.

 

Fonte: Brasil de Fato

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